Science Lion Featured Guest: Raven Hardy and Sickle Cell

Science Lion recently had the pleasure of having a PhD candidate, Raven Hardy, drop by to speak with us about her upcoming event for sickle cell advocacy. To preface awareness of this event and the cause behind it, she also shed some light on her journey through graduate school, in addition to how she became interested in sickle cell research.

Raven is a neuroscience PhD candidate at Emory University, working in the lab of Dr. Hyacinth, which is part of the Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. In particular, she looks at the profile of inflammation in sickle cell patients, and the impact that it may have on brain structure, and subsequently on cognitive deficiencies (dysfunction of the brain) and cell proliferation (cell division and growth).

Upon making these assessments, she observes how these effects track with age, from childhood to adulthood; these alterations of the brain appear to be culprits of the resulting strokes and neurological disorders that may manifest in sickle cell patients.

All of which are done in a mouse model that is humanized or genetically altered to mimic the expression of relevant human proteins in the brain. The purpose of humanizing in this case is to resemble as closely as possible what happens in a human brain, without having to use one.

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But how did Raven get here, in the first place, to do this kind of research? Many times, people draw inspiration and direction in life from tragedy, and this case stands true for Raven, as well. During her senior year of undergraduate studies, Raven’s sister, who herself lived with sickle cell, passed away at the age of 26 from brain death, extending from complications due to a preceding sickle cell crisis.  After managing to overcome that great loss and obtaining her degree, she began her unconventional path through graduate school.

Although she had a passion to learn more about sickle cell and its effects from a research standpoint, she initially entered a PhD program at Scripps Research Institute studying brain-related microorganisms called prions. She later transferred to Emory University, switching gears in her research, and focusing on brain imaging as it related to nutrition in predominately African American communities. However, her journey did not stop there.

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“Unfortunately, I had to leave that lab”, Raven reflected with a chuckle. “And as it would so have, I was able to join a lab that did sickle cell research, so I actually think that my path took a complete circle to get me right where I wanted to be.”

That lab would be her current research home with Dr. Hyacinth. “But I’m happy to be where I am”, she remarked with a smile on her face. “I feel as though when you’re meant to be somewhere you’ll end up there, and I think this is where I’m meant to be.”

So what is sickle cell disease? Sickle cell is a genetic blood disorder that can manifest itself if two parents carry the sickle cell trait. Within the context of the disease, red blood cells possess a “sickle-like” shape, inducing pain and inflammation – a response of immune cells – which can result in a “crisis event.” Unfortunately, these crisis events can lead to adverse outcomes such as stroke, or even death.

Sickle Cell Punnett Square
Punnett Square: This type of diagram outlines the possible combinations of alleles passed down from parents (alleles are variable forms of a given gene). Here we show what allele combinations correspond with which resulting phenotype (phenotype is the outward expression of genes – in other words, what we see!).

Bridging the conventional knowledge of the disease with what she is researching now in the neuroscience realm, Raven informs us that individuals with sickle cell can have high levels of behavioral and cognitive deficits. “So as far as blood is concerned, morbidities may stem from high levels of inflammation that induce the crisis (event) , and this inflammatory crisis may occur in the brain leading to different forms of brain damage.”

In addition to the amazing and intriguing research that she conducts in the lab, Raven really has a passion to advocate for closing the racial disparity gaps within health care, and of course in raising awareness of sickle cell disease, especially as it disproportionately impacts people of African descent.

“There is a lot of research and support for children with sickle cell, but when you reach adulthood and require a continuum of care, unfortunately it is not to the level where it should be”, Raven contends. “So, definitely there should be more physicians that are able to treat and manage individuals with sickle cell in crisis, and in general health.”

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Speaking of her endeavors in public health advocacy, this leads us to her current task of raising awareness of sickle cell in her local community by holding a “sickle cell gala” on her birthday, in honor of her late sister. The Dec. 6 art gala event includes a classy dinner at the Miller-Ward Alumni House in Atlanta, GA, and offers a social opportunity to network in a nurturing environment with other participating individuals. All proceeds toward the event will go to sickle cell causes.

If you would like to follow in Science Lion Media’s footsteps and donate to the cause of furthering sickle cell research and bettering the relevant public health policy, please visit her GoFundMe page. This way, she can allocate the funds to the most reputable organizations for maximum community impact. If you are interested in attending her art gala event, please reach out to Raven at blackbyrd1206@gmail.com for any remaining seats.

black-mom-and-baby

Be sure to check back soon for the uploaded, full podcast interview with Raven as the Science Lion Media team chopped it up with this outstanding young lady, who has personified perseverance in the face of an unconventional road to her PhD.

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Science Lion Byte: Vaping Illness Outbreak Update – Nov. 21, 2019

Please refer to our previous publication for a comprehensive background of the vaping illness outbreak in the United States.

Here is a summary of the latest vaping-related lung illness data released by the CDC, as of November 21, 2019 at 1pm EST:

  • The number of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI) cases has been reported to reach 2,290 nationwide, rising from 2,172 last week. California, Illinois, and Texas lead the nation in confirmed EVALI cases.
  • EVALI cases have now been reported in all of the United States, with the exception of Alaska. The District of Columbia (D.C.), Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands have reported cases, as well.
  • There have now been 47 confirmed deaths related to EVALI, rising from 42 last week. States reporting the most EVALI-related deaths are Illinois (5), California (4), and Indiana (4).
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As of the most recent data set, EVALI patient statistics are as follows:

  • Regarding hospitalization status, 95% of EVALI patients have been hospitalized; 5% have not.
  • 68% of patients are reported to be male.
  • Breakdown of patients by age group:
    15% of patients were under 18 years old
    38% were 18 to 24 years old
    24% were 25 to 34 years old
    23% were 35 years or older

The most complete information of patient product use, 3 months prior to symptom onset, reflects the following:

  • 83% reported using THC-containing products; 35% reported exclusive use of THC-containing products.
  • 61% reported using nicotine-containing products; 13% reported exclusive use of nicotine-containing products.
  • 48% reported both THC- and nicotine-containing product use.
  • 4% reported no THC- or nicotine-containing product use.

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Looking beyond the United States, President Rodrigo Duterte of the Philippines plans to issue an official ban on e-cigarettes, after the country reported its first confirmed EVALI case in a 16 year-old girl, on November 15, 2019.

The Philippines would join roughly 30 other countries that have moved to issue a ban on e-cigarette products, including Brazil, India and Singapore. President Trump of the United States is still contemplating an executive order to ban e-cigarettes; in particular, flavored e-cigarette products.

Due to the Thanksgiving holiday, the CDC will not report new numbers next week, but expect an update around December 5.

Take care and stay tuned for the next Science Lion Byte!

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Nightmare Fuel: Botflies hijack mosquitoes to lay maggots under your skin.

I wish today’s creature and the title was a bad joke.

Unfortunately this is no joke- The Human Botfly (Dermatobia hominis) slaps eggs onto a mosquito, when that mosquito bites you, those eggs are implanted under your skin. Over the next 5-12 weeks, a maggot grows under your skin causing painful leaking pustules until it crawls out of your skin and into the next stage of development as a pupae. Sickening.

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This fly is a part of a family known as Oestridae or Botflies, the larvae of all Botfly species parasitize mammals. Honestly, one of these flies is too many – but to know there are approximately 150 species of Botfly is frankly terrifying. They are found world-wide but the Human Botfly is primarily in the regions found below.

By Cfugate23 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17455271
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Icing on the horror cake shown below – the maggots have backwards facing spikes, designed to make them difficult and painful to remove.

 

Should you be so unlucky to need it, the most commonly used method of removal is  to apply petroleum jelly, glue or nail polish to cover the hole preventing the literal pus-eating worm from breathing. Showing that vaseline can cure everything from ashy hands to hell-spawn growing under your skin.

 

This bite can occur anywhere a mosquito can bite you, so if it is in a sensitive or hard to reach area then please seek a medical professional to apply iodine and remove the fly via tweezer. Be careful if you are removing one yourself, rupturing certain Botfly species can induce anaphalactic shock.

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Despite knowing that these flies are not widespread in my region, every time a mosquito bites me, a tiny voice wonders, “Is today the day that I wind up with maggots under my skin?” Now, a small bit of that terror will go with you 😉.

Botfly maggot removal via tweezer

Community Question: AC-fresh air or stale?

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My girlfriend insists that all air from outside is fresh air and stale air is what the air conditioning circulates.  

Personally, I believe that the AC has fresh air, because it comes from outside!

Which brings me to you, our Science Lion community, what do you believe?

Does the AC provide fresh air or do you need to crack open a window to get a taste of the fresh stuff? Comment your thoughts below!

For the Love of Pineapples: Science Lion Media Feature Post

Hello again everyone!

The pineapple craze continues! As you may remember, I wrote ‘Patience is a Virtue When Growing Pineapples‘, detailing my fun journey of growing my very first pineapple, from a crown – oh yeah, and if you haven’t attempted our “Can you find the lizard on the pineapple plant” task, you really should give it a try; some people have been completely stumped! 😀

Well, not too long after, one of Science Lion Media’s amazing readers reached out and invited me to submit a featured guest piece about my love for pineapples on her blog, “IT’S ALL ABOUT LOVE.” I must say, it was a REAL pleasure!

Click the link below for some more pineapple fun. You’re in for a nice surprise! 🙂

***A special ‘Thank you’ to YBP for inviting Science Lion media onto her platform!***

GIFTS: GUEST POST OF BIJEAN, SCIENCE LION MEDIA — ITS ALL ABOUT LOVE
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Parting with Honeybees is Such Sweet Sorrow

Traditionally speaking, when we hear about honeybees, we think about insects that sting. We also think about pollination and of course by proxy, honey.

These associations may only be fleetingly considered, but when you take a moment to really think about how significant the act of pollination actually is, you realize these little critters are way more important than they seem at first glance.

So what’s the big deal about pollination? Besides, when Spring comes around, pollen wreaks havoc on millions that suffer from allergies, so there can’t be anything good about it, right?

Wrong!

Pollination is crucial for the fertilization of all flowers to reproduce, whether it’s your typical daisy in a meadow, or a flower on your fruit or vegetable crop, with the latter being most important to our well-being as humans.

The process of pollination requires the transfer of pollen grains from a male flower to the receiving reproductive organs of the female flower; sometimes flowers are hermaphroditic and contain both male and female reproductive components, allowing for easier pollination.

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Now, finding great pollen-producing flowers isn’t just an intuitive skill. You have to set out and find them! So, if you’re also wondering how honeybees communicate with their hive mates about where they’ve located the best pollen and nectar sources, take a quick moment to watch this short, cool video below (you’re gonna love it):

Who would have known honeybees could get their twerk on? 😀

Honeybees aren’t the only creatures that carry out this process, as various bird species also engage in the pollination of flowers, such as hummingbirds, spiderhunters, and honeyeaters, to name a few. As a matter of fact, 87.5% of plant flower species are visited by animals for pollination purposes. 75% of all crops used directly for human consumption worldwide are pollinated by insects, the majority of which are bees.

However, bird species for instance, are experiencing negative unintended consequences of climate change, which is limiting their ability to pollinate as they traditionally would. Definitely take a look at the article, Our Silent skies – 3.1 Billion Birds Lost, for more details on the crisis afflicting our birds.

Additionally, western honeybees are the most frequent floral visitor of crops, worldwide, and unfortunately, a concern over their well-being is growing as honeybee populations are dwindling across the globe. This also opens up the conversation to how this impacts the success of agricultural industries and our resulting food supply.

So what is leading to the decline in bees’ numbers, and hindering their ability to pollinate? I’ll list a few reasons:

Lack of biodiversity: Studies have shown that pollination is most successful with diverse populations of pollinators, as they tend to forage on the upper half of plants, while wild bees tend to pollinate closer to the ground. In settings where environmental conditions are windier, honeybees tend to leave the setting, but wildbees continue pollinating at the same rate.

However, when biodiversity is lower and only honeybees are present in those same harsh conditions, little to no pollination occurred. So some bees are just built to handle more stressful settings…honeybees, maybe not so much.

Honeybee competition: Interestingly enough, honeybees that are managed in apiaries by bee-handlers seem to out-compete wild bees and drive them from their natural habitats, thus reducing the diversity of bees in a given area.

Pollution: Research has shown that honeybees that are exposed to elemental heavy metals from pollutants in their environments, such as cadmium and lead, may negatively alter their feeding behavior.

Fortunately, there are other groups investigating certain gut microbes that can scavenge and metabolize these heavy metals that dwell within the bee host, and could serve as a probiotic of sorts for sickly honeybees. The use of pesticides have also been of concern when accounting for bee colony loss.

Infection: In conjunction with pesticide exposure, there have been outbreaks of parasite exposures and various other pathogens that have burdened bee populations worldwide, and veterinary researchers are hard at work to quell this issue.

As you can see, our sweet little honeybee friends are quite sensitive to their environments. We have to be mindful of not only what we’re doing to nature, but how nature is responding to our actions. They may be small, but honeybees play a huge role in our well-being, bigger than many of us may have realized. So, pay them some respect, and show them some love.

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Smoking or Vaping, There’s No Escaping – UPDATED

Traditional smoking of cigarettes has become less appealing to the public over time, and there is still a significant segment of society that partakes in this activity. Some willingly view this activity as an outlet for stress relief, while others have acknowledged their addiction and are open to quitting their habit with an implemented program. As the dangers of smoking have become more exposed over time, a variety of quitting mechanisms have arisen from gum, to skin patches, to other forms of pharmaceutical interventions. Unfortunately, with the use of these options, there has only been a 10% success rate in quitting smoking.

In 2003 the first commercially available E-cig was created by Hon Lik in China, and in 2006 the E-cig was introduced to the U.S. market. Today, the most influential player in the E-cig market is Juul, a startup which after launching in 2015 captured 70% of the E-cig market within 3 years. The intention was to provide a “healthy cigarette” and as opposed to attaching itself to the stigma of smoking, E-cig usage was popularly dubbed “vaping”. 

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Instead of burning the nicotine-containing substance or other alternative, that main ingredient is suspended in a complex liquid which is heated to an aerosol for inhalation. Much contention has arisen over the effect heating may have on the ingredients, and whether enough reproducible research has been conducted on the health impacts of vaping. Over the course of marketing the product, a perception developed that this product could be used as a bridge to lead smokers to a non-smoking lifestyle, if desired. Unfortunately, controversy has struck, as a mysterious lung disorder initially described as “vaping associated pulmonary illness” (VAPI), and now reclassified as “E-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury” (EVALI) began impacting hundreds of vaping clients requiring them to be hospitalized, with over 3 dozen individuals dying from the symptoms, as of this post. Below is a list of states with some of the most EVALI-related cases, including some statistics from the current EVALI epidemic, as it has evolved over time:

CALIFORNIA

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  • In our previous issue, according to the CDC, as of September 24, 2019, there had been 805 confirmed and suspected vaping-related cases in the U.S. and U.S. territories. By November 13*, they saw that number jump to 2,172 cases. Pertaining to deaths related to vaping, as of October 2, there had been 17 deaths reported. As of this publication, that number has more than doubled to 42, with 4 of those deaths occurring in California. This state is among the top 3 states reporting vaping-related cases.
  • Regarding what is physiologically leading to this outcome, research has shone the spotlight on what appears to be an infiltration of certain immune cell types that typically don’t represent the quiescent lung environment, seemingly caused by vaping. 

ILLINOIS

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  • In addition to having one of the highest number of reported cases amongst reporting states for lung illness related to vaping, Illinois has 4 vaping-related deaths reported to the CDC. To determine if these cases are legitimately related to vaping, teams including state investigators, clinicians, and public health officials are organized to align their findings with a validated case definition. If possible, interviews are also conducted with the patient to establish confirmation of the case.
  • Based on the cases investigated so far, all patients were reported to have been vaping leading up to their hospitalization status. Additionally, most patients used THC-containing products or a combination of nicotine-containing and THC-containing products; one subset of patients only used nicotine-containing vaping products. No consistent evidence of infection has been associated with these cases.
  • CDC officials have recently revealed that vitamin E acetate may be an ingredient included in THC-containing E-cigs and vaping products, to serve as a thickening agent. Although vitamin E is safe to use as a cosmetic or dietary supplement, previous research suggests vitamin E acetate may interfere with normal lung function, when inhaled.
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INDIANA

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  • Indiana, a state with a high number of EVALI cases, shares the highest number of reported EVALI-related deaths which have risen to 4, as of this posting. Texas rounds out the top 3 reporting states for vaping-related cases, although it reported it’s first and only related-death in early October.
  • As of the latest statistics, 79% of total patients were under the age of 35 years old; 65% of patients were between the ages of 18 and 34. Roughly 70% of EVALI cases involved male patients, as of October 15, 2019. Alarmingly, 14% of patients were under 18 years old, as this product is prohibited for sale to minors. This implies that further enforcement of the law is needed.
  • The first reported double lung transplant surgery related to vaping was successfully conducted on a 17-year old boy from Michigan. Health officials declined to provide information on what the teen had vaped or how long he had been vaping. Regardless, the extent to which this vaping crisis has evolved and reared its ugly head continues to baffle and concern health care officials nationwide.

MINNESOTA

  • Minnesota is a moderately high reporting state as it pertains to lung illness cases; this includes 3 EVALI-related deaths being reported from this state, as of this posting.
  • Investigators are diligently working to uncover what may be the primary culprit in manifesting this mysterious lung illness, as this is still unknown. However, contrary to some E-cigarettes being marketed to contain zero percent nicotine, they have been found to contain the substance. The aerosolized liquids used in these vaping vectors typically contain:
  • Nicotine
  • Ultra-fine particles
  • Flavorings (such as diacetyl, which has been linked to serious lung disease)
  • Volatile organic compounds
  • Cancer-causing chemicals
  • Heavy metals such as nickel, tin, and lead

Although many countries have long banned the import of E-cigarette products, more bans are now cascading down from the U.S. federal government and sweeping across the country. There is simply too much controversy around not only the marketing practices of E-cig manufacturers, but also the safety of the vape fillers themselves when heated and inhaled.

A similar dark cloud of uncertainty hovers over the hookah community, too, as similar arguments have been made regarding the safety of the activity. It is best advised to avoid E-cig use until more substantiated reviews and studies are conducted, regarding the concerns therein. And of course, it is best to avoid the habit of smoking altogether. Check back for the latest news and updates on the U.S. vaping outbreak, as we revise our coverage on a regular basis.

*This content has been updated, as of November 14, 2019, to provide you with the most current coverage of the EVALI outbreak in the U.S.

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To Teach is To Do

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There is a quote that states, “He who can, does. He who cannot, teaches.” I have heard this quote during my time as an educator in public schools in this form, “ Those who can’t do, teach.” It’s interesting to see how “telephone” has been played over the years with this phrase. Originally, this saying can be traced back to the Irish playwright, George Bernard Shaw. Of course, Shaw meant it in an entirely different context. His reference was intended for revolutionaries, not educators.

As a teacher hearing this statement for the first time evoked many negative emotions out of my being. First, I was upset. I was capable of doing many things well and I was always one of those students that found it hard to figure out what I wanted to “do” because I was great at doing a lot. How could this statement apply to me since I was not teaching due to lack of aptitude or ability? I was also disappointed with our society in general for this statement.

Teaching is an honorable profession; no other professions would exist without someone else educating another individual in that area. Period. Even if it is an apprenticeship, or technical skill, we all need educators in some form or fashion. I also could identify examples of teachers that may have fueled this statement. Those individuals that were in the field to have summers off while still getting paid, do the bare minimum for their students during the academic year and were minimally invested in these students as growing human beings that will contribute to our society one day.

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I reconciled all of these negative emotions into pushing to be a better teacher. Taking it one step further than those around me that may have settled for average. I wanted to bring enthusiasm and also inspire my students to not only be interested in science but also enjoy learning it. I remember the great teachers I had along the way that were passionate about their subject matter and it bled into their very craft. They inspired me to want to be a better student and even a better person. I think we all can identify a teacher that served this purpose in our lives. Those teachers that filled us with hope and wonder and taught us how to think critically about the world around us. These individuals were not only great teachers, but also intelligent, thought-provoking people. To think they were in the profession because they are unable to “do” is simply ludicrous.

Now being a research scientist and also educator I realize that if I cannot teach it, I do not know my subject manner well. By engaging in teaching you become a constant learner of knowledge and lifelong student yourself – learning from the students you teach and also the knowledge you seek in them and outside of the classroom walls to hone your craft. So, next time someone tells you this statement maybe if you can’t teach you shouldn’t be doing it in the first place.

What are your thoughts? Has this ever been told to you?

Patience is a Virtue When Growing a Pineapple

Growing up, my father was an avid horticulturist, with a garden plot in our backyard, allocated to fruit and vegetable cultivation. As I grew older, I realized the difference in quality of homegrown food versus store bought; you could just TASTE it. Not to mention, this was before organic was even a categorical option in the grocery store. With age and further knowledge, I became aware of how important it was to source my food supply from a quality-controlled environment, where I could ensure no potentially hazardous pesticides or herbicides were applied to it.

Now as an adult, I’ve been able to apply what I’ve learned from him (and the internet) to successfully try my hand at a variety of crops, including: Tomatoes, cucumbers, pumpkins, squash, kale, bell peppers, tobasco peppers, watermelon, zucchini, blueberries, blackberries, and strawberries – is that list exhaustive enough for ya? Ha! 😀 But then one day it hit me! My favorite fruit is pineapple, so could it be possible for me to grow a tropical fruit in a temperate climate? I figured I’d give it a try…

After cutting and peeling a recent pineapple, I saved the crown and removed the dying leaves from it. I continued removing layers of leaf blades until I could view the brown root tips at the base of the crown (circled in red, in the picture below). Some sites suggest allowing the crown to sit and dry for a couple days before planting in a pot of peat moss, but I’ve also been successful planting immediately after de-leafing the crown. 

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Now being that pineapples are bromeliads and somewhat related to the cactus, they don’t require much water, nor do they appreciate sitting in water-logged soil for extended periods of time (thus the use of peat-moss). So, don’t suffocate the little plant with love; resort to a weekly, light watering and allow the crown to settle into the soil. After about 3 months, new leaves will emerge from your planted pineapple crown, and it should look something like the picture below.

Over the course of 2 years I watered once weekly, and after about 6 months in the pot I fertilized once monthly with a granular, organic fertilizer; I prefer fertilizing the soil around the roots as opposed to applying products to the foliage, as some suggest. This way, I can avoid potentially ‘burning’ the leaf blades, and stressing out the plant.

I also made sure to bring my potted pineapple inside once outside temperatures dropped below 40 degrees Fahrenheit at night and 60 during the day.

Then one August day, I observed an interesting finding….*gasps*

August 7 – The pineapple displayed a developing flower bud! Subsequently, it would blossom and eventually grow into a mature fruit, if all went well!

Check out these chronologically sequenced photos as my pineapple continues growing!

August 12

August 20 – Photo zooming in on the flower bud.

August 26
September 3 – The flower bud is blooming from bottom to top! Did you know that a pineapple is the fusion of multiple individual fruits? Each flower blossom represents one of those individual fruits.
September 12
September 12
September 16 – The pineapple flower (inflorescence) is finished blooming, and the fruit is completely fused together. Now it begins to grow as a whole, fused fruit, and will mature over the next 4-5 months.
September 27
October 1
October 5
October 18 – In case you were wondering, this plant spans over 4 feet in diameter!

Pretty cool, huh?

Well, “The marathon continues…”(shoutout to Nipsey Hussle, RIP). Keep your fingers crossed for me while we enter the winter season, as I’ll have to bring this little pineapple inside where there’s some semblance of climate control! The biggest challenge will be providing adequate lighting…hmmmm…what to do, what to do…🤔

Check back in a few months for my updated post as I attempt to address my interior lighting issue and detail the remaining growth and ripening stages of the fruit. Hope you’ve enjoyed my pineapple-growing journey so far, and don’t be afraid to embark upon your own. You can do it!

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Nightmare Fuel: The Bobbit Worm

Lurking in the watery depths lies a worm spun from pure nightmare fuel- the Bobbit worm.

Filmed by Khaled Sultani- Check out their other videos!
Eunice aphroditois

Mrs. Scary-Face is a predator who feeds on anything she can catch, using her long sensory antennae to determine when prey is nearby. The jaws are held back until the right moment when they snap shut on unsuspecting prey. These creatures can vary in length, from a few inches to 10 feet long!  Bobbit worms are distributed worldwide but mainly found within the Indo-Pacific ocean. These creatures produce sexually, with both male and female ejaculating sperm and eggs respectively into the water and letting the ocean current do the rest. The next time you are swimming on those white sandy beaches, remember that a very tiny percentage of that crystal clear water is- “Bobbit sex water”.

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Research related to Bobbit worms has found interesting predator-prey behaviors, where fish will actually gang up and blow water jets on the Bobbit worms to cover the Bobbit hole with sand and silt and force the monster  Bobbit to retreat.  The research on Bobbit worms is not widespread, a discredit to us all, as this fascinating predator is assuredly hiding some scientific secrets.

To support marine biology research check out the links below:

 

 

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