Sodium Intake and Your Health: A Tale of Two Standards

When it comes to making food pleasurable to the taste buds, adding salt to a cuisine definitely helps make that a reality. Salt has been known not just as a food additive for flavor enhancement, but for thousands of years, it has also been used as a preservative to extend the shelf-life of food.

However, as with many things in western society, the use of salt has become excessive. Simultaneously, the prevalence of obesity has also been on the rise along with the associated negative health consequences, such as, diabetes, renal (kidney) disease, and cardiovascular disease. For all of these outcomes, in one way or another, the common denominator is hypertension (high blood pressure), so controlling this risk-factor is paramount in maintaining good long-term health.

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Clinicians advise that for good cardiovascular health, we maintain a resting blood pressure reading of 120/80 or less. So what does that readout actually mean? The top number, 120, represents the pressure that blood vessels are subjected to when the heart pumps, and the bottom number, 80, represents the pressure on the blood vessels when the heart is at rest.

Important blood pressure levels to consider
Hypertension: 140/90 and above
Prehypertension: 121-139/81-89
Normal: 120/80 and below

A primary factor that influences blood pressure is sodium, and the most common form of sodium consumption is salt. Although there is a common misconception that the two substances are synonymous, on a molecular level, salt in the form of NaCl (sodium chloride) is 40 percent sodium and 60 percent chloride, so salt is not purely sodium.

Without getting too detailed with the molecular chemistry of NaCl (sodium chloride), this is a simplified representation of the salt molecule at an atomic level.

Taking this into consideration, it is clear that tracking sodium intake is prudent to the regulation of blood pressure. Specific populations are more susceptible to the impacts of excessive sodium intake, such as adult populations over 50 years old, individuals with a history of cardiovascular complications, and individuals of African descent.

To help the general population gauge how much sodium they should be consuming, the USDA has established guidelines for daily sodium intake, with 2300mg being the upper limit for the general population, and 1500mg for more salt-sensitive groups.

However, just because there are guidelines in place, does not mean that we actually abide by them. Unfortunately, it is estimated that about 90 percent of Americans are ingesting too much sodium, and according to the CDC, the average American consumes more than 3400mg of sodium per day! It’s no wonder that with the over-indulgence of this element, cardiovascular-related disorders and diseases are the leading cause of death, not just in the United States, but also in the world!

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So how are we consuming so much sodium? I mean, we’re talking thousands of milligrams per day, so is it that hard to stay within the suggested limits? The figure below, courtesy of the CDC, may give you an idea of how quickly your sodium intake can add up.

Breads, canned goods, processed foods, fast foods, and packaged snack foods contain some of the highest levels of sodium that can be potentially introduced into our diets, so avoiding these where possible is strongly advised when striving to follow a low-sodium regimen.

Now, if we go back to the sodium intake guidelines we notice that in the context of ethnic groups, only African-descended people are advised to shoot for the lower sodium limit, which begs the question, “Why?”

There is no one over-arching smoking gun, but one link that has been made pertains to the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, which manifests itself in multiple variants/forms. This ACE gene is responsible for inducing the release of a hormone called angiotensin, which regulates the level of constriction of the blood vessels and, by proxy, regulates blood pressure.

Some of these ACE variants which exist in people of African-descent are more sensitive to sodium, and exposure to certain levels of this element can result in an over-constriction of the blood vessels, leading to an elevated systolic blood pressure.

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However, with this in mind, African-descended people who may be nutrition facts-conscious and track their sodium consumption may need to be wary of another revelation: The nutrition facts label assumes that your daily limit of sodium is capped at the general population’s recommendation of 2300mg.

Oops.

So instead of going by the percent of daily value, people of African descent and other susceptible groups need to pay attention to the number of milligrams of sodium, and align it with their 1500mg limit.

Some of these group-specific nuances have a history of being overlooked or ignored, as we have highlighted in previous publications regarding dairy consumption, or even calcium and vitamin D daily recommendations.

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As is typical with science, opposite findings have been revealed when tipping the scale to the other extreme of very little sodium consumption. There are also instances where lower sodium intake may not show benefits to cardiovascular health, and some of these findings are presumptively gathered and disseminated as a devil’s advocate rebuttal to the promotion of a diet lower in sodium.

However, what is often overlooked is that the studies supporting this rebuttal are composed of majority or entirely Caucasian participants; this means that we don’t really know if these claims hold the same weight for African descendants, Hispanics, Asians, or any other non-Caucasian groups (remember those ethnic group nuances we mentioned earlier?). According to the American Heart Association (AHA), 500mg of sodium is the minimum requirement for physiological health (healthy bodily function). In this day and age, barring an extreme circumstance, it is pretty difficult to not eclipse that threshold.

Claims of a low sodium diet not being beneficial may only be relegated to individuals with a history of congestive heart failure, or in very extreme instances of voluntary (diet) or involuntary (starvation) sodium restriction. These claims should not be irresponsibly dispersed as this may mislead and misinform the readers. Any study findings that have shown a lack of benefit from lower sodium intake (within physiologically relevant levels, such as 1000mg-2000mg) have been relegated to almost exclusively Caucasian participants.

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So, besides the typical recommendations of avoiding sodium-laden foods or suppressing the urge to add excess salt when cooking (and at the dinner table), are there any other ways to help individuals of African descent reduce sodium intake? Definitely!

  • Consume more potassium-rich foods. Potassium and sodium are fierce competitors for some of the same targets, so the blood pressure-raising effects of sodium can be offset by the presence of this element. Bananas, orange juice, sweet potatoes, and spinach are excellent sources of potassium, for example.
  • Consider using a proportion of potassium chloride with traditional sodium chloride salt. Some food companies have done this, like Smartfoods, with their bagged popcorn.
  • Transition to a more contemporary salt alternative, such as SODA-LO with their salt microspheres. Simply put, it is your traditional sodium chloride salt, but with a twist; it’s engineered as hollow spheres instead of dense flakes or granules, so the density of salt (and concentration of sodium) is up to 50% less! This Tate & Lyle’s ingredient has garnered recognition for its innovative goal of helping reduce our sodium intake, while apparently retaining that same magnificent salty taste (*wink wink*). Hopefully, this product can be approved for adoption worldwide, if it hasn’t already.
  • Make sure to consult your primary care physician or personal dietician for guidance in implementing the aforementioned suggestions, as well as other alternatives I haven’t mentioned here.

With the daily grind of work, family, and recreation, it can be challenging to plan and execute your goals of reducing sodium intake. Meal planning and cooking take time, I get it. But believe me, it’s worth the effort. Not only will your body thank you for it, but so will your loved ones; not just for sticking around, but for maintaining a higher quality of life while you’re still here.

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Sour Milk- Caucasian Calcium Standards

For decades, the United States Dietary Association (USDA) and its subsidiaries have advocated for us to acquire our daily vitamin D and calcium requirements, in large part through dairy consumption. As an appropriate prelude to this article, check out ‘Milk, an udder mistake?’, for more background on food policy recommendations regarding dairy consumption. In any case, it’s safe to say that dairy products have become a staple food group in most of our lives, whether it’s cheese, ice cream, a bowl of cereal, or a plethora of other milk-based products.

A picture containing person, wall, indoor, woman

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With dairy products contributing to a significant portion of our daily calcium and vitamin D intake, that leaves a large proportion of American society in a conundrum of either having to deal with the inconvenient symptoms of lactose intolerance or consume fewer dairy products. 

With this seemingly binary decision, a public health concern arises regarding Hispanics and African-Americans being deficient in their acquisition of calcium and vitamin D. One solution to address deficiencies such as these has been to revise the WIC food packages by amending the eligible food items to accommodate better micronutrient supplementation. Although most WIC recipients are of Caucasian descent, Hispanics and African-Americans as a combined group make up the majority of program participants. So, the aim is to help provide this lower-income subset within these respective demographics with better food options. 

However, there seems to be an interesting paradox that has been uncovered by the research community over the last 20 years. Although African-Americans and Hispanics are historically recognized as deficient consumers of dairy with the lowest associated intake of calcium and vitamin D, it is known that these groups are still less predisposed to developing osteoporosis, versus Caucasians. 

A picture containing indoor

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Although recommendations currently call for serum vitamin D levels (vitamin D circulating in the blood) between 20 and 50 ng/ml, black women actually displayed a lower hip fracture risk when they had less than the minimum recommended serum concentration; higher levels correlated with greater fracture risk. 

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Even more, there are correlations that infer a possible association between excess calcium intake for African American men and their alarming rate of U.S. metastatic prostate cancer diagnoses and deaths. Compared to their Caucasian counterparts, African-American men have a 50% higher risk of developing prostate cancer and are twice as likely to die from the disease after diagnosis.

Within this compilation of most recent studies, there are a couple schools of thought that experience some overlap. This includes those that are against lactose consumption (dairy) but comply with current calcium and vitamin D intake guidelines via non-dairy sources, and then there are those that are both against dairy and advocate for lower daily recommendations of the respective micronutrients. 

A person posing for the camera

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For instance, one study showed that a low-lactose, high-calcium, high-vitamin D diet favors a reduced risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women. The interpretation of this study’s results drew controversy, not so much for the suggestion that less dairy may be better, but for the maintenance of the high-calcium mantra.

One of the critics, Dr. Constance Hilliard, has a unique perspective that blends a historian background with a clinical research context, and she has deduced that many people of African-American descent have been evolutionarily and epigenetically adapted to thrive on a low-calcium, low-sodium diet, among other divergent aspects of their when compared to the U.S. dietary guidelines. 

A person smiling for the camera

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Dr. Constance Hilliard

This adaptation was acquired in West Africa before any appreciable movement of African populations to the western world, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade (1500s-1800s) or before any pre-colonial, sea-faring expeditions by West African kingdoms (i.e. Mali Kingdom, led by Mansa Abu Bakari II, during the early 1300s). In Western Africa there has been a prevalence of Tsetse flies that have inhibited the sustenance of cattle grazing in this region, leading to calcium being sourced elsewhere, and in less abundance. According to Dr. Hilliard, these populations lived healthily on 200-400mg/day of calcium vs the 1000-1200mg/day U.S. recommendation.

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More specifically, this evolutionary pressure selected for a unique variant of TRPV6, a calcium channel responsible for dietary uptake of calcium. This channel variant is hypersensitive to calcium, requiring less than other variants which manifest in European haplotypes, for example. Dr. Hilliard suspects that the surplus of calcium in our diet due to guidelines that are set for Europeans and European-descendants, may be one of the major culprits behind the disparate prevalence of certain metastatic cancers, as this excess calcium may essentially be toxic to African Americans and other African-descended peoples.

Dr. Milton Mills

Another proponent of reducing dairy intake is Dr. Milton Mills, who has not only partaken in impassioned reviews and rebuttals regarding the seemingly misleading dietary guidelines but has also confronted the National Food board about the inherent racism that has manifested itself in the representation of the board, and subsequently in the health policies passed down to the public.

Dr. Mills, who also is a staunch advocate for veganism, has noted as a practicing physician that a wide variety of his patients’ symptoms which could normally be attributed to any number of disorders or diseases, have been alleviated by simply recommending removal of dairy from their diets. Depending on whether these patients are equally replacing the dairy with non-dairy supplementation would also provide more insight as to whether their positive response was solely attributed to reduced lactose intake or in conjunction with reduced calcium in their diets, as well.

Based on these findings, there seems to be growing evidence that our national dietary recommendations may need more diversification to fit the melting pot of America that this country has become. It is a sad prospect to suspect that consumers in their own best interest may be following guidelines that unbeknownst to them may have unintended consequences.  If you are interested in exploring non-dairy options to acquire your calcium and vitamin D necessities, be sure to reference this article for more information and sources.

If you found this article informative please hit the ‘like’ button below, and don’t forget to subscribe to our platform for the latest intriguing science news and media!

Sour Milk: Caucasian Calcium Standards

For decades, the United States Dietary Association (USDA) and its subsidiaries have advocated for us to acquire our daily vitamin D and calcium requirements, in large part through dairy consumption. As an appropriate prelude to this article, check out ‘Milk, an udder mistake?’, for more background on food policy recommendations regarding dairy consumption. In any case, it’s safe to say that dairy products have become a staple food group in most of our lives, whether it’s cheese, ice cream, a bowl of cereal, or a plethora of other milk-based products.

A picture containing person, wall, indoor, woman

Description automatically generated

With dairy products contributing to a significant portion of our daily calcium and vitamin D intake, that leaves a large proportion of American society in a conundrum of either having to deal with the inconvenient symptoms of lactose intolerance or consume fewer dairy products. 

With this seemingly binary decision, a public health concern arises regarding Hispanics and African-Americans being deficient in their acquisition of calcium and vitamin D. One solution to address deficiencies such as these has been to revise the WIC food packages by amending the eligible food items to accommodate better micronutrient supplementation. Although most WIC recipients are of Caucasian descent, Hispanics and African-Americans as a combined group make up the majority of program participants. So, the aim is to help provide this lower-income subset within these respective demographics with better food options. 

However, there seems to be an interesting paradox that has been uncovered by the research community over the last 20 years. Although African-Americans and Hispanics are historically recognized as deficient consumers of dairy with the lowest associated intake of calcium and vitamin D, it is known that these groups are still less predisposed to developing osteoporosis, versus Caucasians. 

A picture containing indoor

Description automatically generated

Although recommendations currently call for serum vitamin D levels (vitamin D circulating in the blood) between 20 and 50 ng/ml, black women actually displayed a lower hip fracture risk when they had less than the minimum recommended serum concentration; higher levels correlated with greater fracture risk. 

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Even more, there are correlations that infer a possible association between excess calcium intake for African American men and their alarming rate of U.S. metastatic prostate cancer diagnoses and deaths. Compared to their Caucasian counterparts, African-American men have a 50% higher risk of developing prostate cancer and are twice as likely to die from the disease after diagnosis.

Within this compilation of most recent studies, there are a couple schools of thought that experience some overlap. This includes those that are against lactose consumption (dairy) but comply with current calcium and vitamin D intake guidelines via non-dairy sources, and then there are those that are both against dairy and advocate for lower daily recommendations of the respective micronutrients. 

A person posing for the camera

Description automatically generated

For instance, one study showed that a low-lactose, high-calcium, high-vitamin D diet favors a reduced risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women. The interpretation of this study’s results drew controversy, not so much for the suggestion that less dairy may be better, but for the maintenance of the high-calcium mantra.

One of the critics, Dr. Constance Hilliard, has a unique perspective that blends a historian background with a clinical research context, and she has deduced that many people of African-American descent have been evolutionarily and epigenetically adapted to thrive on a low-calcium, low-sodium diet, among other divergent aspects of their when compared to the U.S. dietary guidelines. 

A person smiling for the camera

Description automatically generated
Dr. Constance Hilliard

This adaptation was acquired in West Africa before any appreciable movement of African populations to the western world, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade (1500s-1800s) or before any pre-colonial, sea-faring expeditions by West African kingdoms (i.e. Mali Kingdom, led by Mansa Abu Bakari II, during the early 1300s). In Western Africa there has been a prevalence of Tsetse flies that have inhibited the sustenance of cattle grazing in this region, leading to calcium being sourced elsewhere, and in less abundance. According to Dr. Hilliard, these populations lived healthily on 200-400mg/day of calcium vs the 1000-1200mg/day U.S. recommendation.

Advertisements

More specifically, this evolutionary pressure selected for a unique variant of TRPV6, a calcium channel responsible for dietary uptake of calcium. This channel variant is hypersensitive to calcium, requiring less than other variants which manifest in European haplotypes, for example. Dr. Hilliard suspects that the surplus of calcium in our diet due to guidelines that are set for Europeans and European-descendants, may be one of the major culprits behind the disparate prevalence of certain metastatic cancers, as this excess calcium may essentially be toxic to African Americans and other African-descended peoples.

Dr. Milton Mills

Another proponent of reducing dairy intake is Dr. Milton Mills, who has not only partaken in impassioned reviews and rebuttals regarding the seemingly misleading dietary guidelines but has also confronted the National Food board about the inherent racism that has manifested itself in the representation of the board, and subsequently in the health policies passed down to the public.

Dr. Mills, who also is a staunch advocate for veganism, has noted as a practicing physician that a wide variety of his patients’ symptoms which could normally be attributed to any number of disorders or diseases, have been alleviated by simply recommending removal of dairy from their diets. Depending on whether these patients are equally replacing the dairy with non-dairy supplementation would also provide more insight as to whether their positive response was solely attributed to reduced lactose intake or in conjunction with reduced calcium in their diets, as well.

Based on these findings, there seems to be growing evidence that our national dietary recommendations may need more diversification to fit the melting pot of America that this country has become. It is a sad prospect to suspect that consumers in their own best interest may be following guidelines that unbeknownst to them may have unintended consequences.  If you are interested in exploring non-dairy options to acquire your calcium and vitamin D necessities, be sure to reference this article for more information and sources.

If you found this article informative please hit the ‘like’ button below, and don’t forget to subscribe to our platform for the latest intriguing science news and media!